Cancer of Uterus
Cancer of uterus (or cancer of uterus lining) is a cancerous tumor that may form from uterus tissues and spread to the rest of patient’s body.
This is a widespread diseases that’s on the 4th place after cancer of breast, skin and gastrointestinal tract. It’s typical of women older 45, and the type of oncology depends on its location since uterus is a multi-layer organ.
Causes of cancer
The causes of cancer are not defined for sure, but there are some factors that increase the risk of cancer development. The results of medical research show that the following reasons promote cancer:
- high blood pressure;
- infection of papilloma virus;
- disruption of period;
- late menopause;
- active sexual life with multiple partners, early sexual life;
- sexually transmitted diseases;
- oral contraceptives;
- early child birth.
Obesity is another significant factor. If a woman weighs 15 kg more than normal, there’s a higher risk of cancer. Overweight of 30 kg and more increases cancer risk by 10 times.
Uterus cancer can be triggered with such causes as pre-cancerous conditions – they influence oncology, as well. These conditions include scars, ulcers, erosions after child birth, leukokeratosis, polyps, condylomas, and chronic inflammatory processes, such as endometritis and endocervicitis.
How uterus cancer develops?
Depending on the type of epithelium, cancer can be dermoid cancellation, and adenocarcinoma developing in the womb. Adenocarcinoma is more widespread and occurs in 70% of cases. There’s a rare tumor that affects uterus passage – sarcoma.
There are three differentiations of tumors: high-differentiated tumors, moderately differentiated tumors and non-differentiated tumors.
Stages of uterus cancer development:
- At the first stage, the tumor is placed in the uterus.
- At the second stage, cancer affects uterine cervix further on.
- At the third stage, the tumor advances to fiber, and metastases develop in vagina.
- At the fourth stage, the tumor advances outside the pelvis, and grows into the intestine and adjacent organs.
Symptoms of disease
Cancer of uterus has the whole range of symptoms. First signs are bleeding, blood, discomfort and whites.
Symptoms and signs of cancer reveal when the tumor starts decaying, which means that uterus cancer may not be noticeable in the beginning.
At early cancer stages, purulent and mucous discharge can be excreted: it causes irritation and itching. The first symptoms can reveal after hard physical load, defecation and shaking.
After that, bloody issues can be discharged, and doesn’t matter what they look like. This process takes place regularly, though discharge can be profuse or poor.
Problems with menstrual period mean that the pathology is developing. Duration of period can become shorter or longer, a woman can experience pain during urination: in this case, the tumor grows into the bladder.
What are the basic symptoms of uterus cancer? Oncologists claim that 80% of women experience bleeding from the uterus that’s not connected with the periods.
At later stages of uterus cancer, the following symptoms can appear:
- Dragging pain in abdomen, lumbar spine, or crotch.
- Pain during and after sexual intercourse.
- Problems with voiding – diarrhea or constipation.
- Loss of weight without reasons.
- Lack of appetite.
- Vomiting and nausea.
- Low working efficiency, a woman gets tired quickly.
- Hyperthermia (high body temperature, accumulation of heat).
Uterus cancer before menopause can be characterized by:
- Bloody discharge is not reduced as it should be.
- Regular bloody discharge.
- Bleeding becomes stronger (instead of subsiding).
During menopause, menstruation is absent, so any bloody discharge from the uterus signal that something’s wrong. It doesn’t matter, how intense and durable these discharges are. All women who care about their health should pay due attention to such symptoms and raise awareness, if these occur.
If any symptoms of cancer have been revealed, a woman should visit a doctor! Cancer of uterus can have awful outcomes. Timely visit to doctor allows starting treatment as soon as possible and defeating the disease.
Methods of diagnosis
Diagnosis is very important, because it defines the way uterus cancer is treated. First, a patient is examined, and the doctor is informed about her complaints. During cancer treatment, a woman should also be checked by a gynecologist, because the disease cannot be cured efficiently without regular examinations.
Diagnosis can be made with the help of vaginal touch examination, rectal examination and examination with mirrors.
Vaginal examination of uterus cancer helps to define all possible changes, if the tumor develops noticeably. Since the tumor is touched by doctor’s fingers, bleeding occurs often. If uterus cancer has spread considerably, additional examination of intestine is performed to find tumor on pelvic walls, and between the uterus and the sacral bone.
Vaginal examination is not enough to define cancer of uterine cervix at the initial stage. In this case, examination with mirrors is performed. Biopsy and cytological examination help to define the initial stages of uterus cancer, and a vaginal touch is made. If doctors suspect a woman has cancer of womb or uterine cervix, they perform endometrectomy of uterus and histology to diagnose the disease.
All procedures are performed in clinic with necessary equipment. Biopsy is the most accurate method of diagnosis – mistakes are one-off events in this case. In half cases of vaginal examination, uterus cancer is not revealed. Diagnostics with mirrors leaves 10% of uterus cancer undisclosed.
For prophylactic purposes, women after 30 should go through gynecological examinations at least two times a year. It allows defining possible premalignancy that may not be noticed. Regular examinations should be made when a woman starts having sexual life. Cytological examinations and ultrasound tomography should be performed, as well.
The basic signs of cancer are symptoms that can be durable or chronic, absence of results of treatment.
Diseases of uterus cervix are treated radically with electrothermic coagulation, electroscission, or total removal of uterus cervix.
Timely diagnosis and treatment give positive prognosis and survival rate. If a cancerous tumor in uterus is revealed at early stage, the chances of good outcomes are much higher. Take care of yourself and visit a doctor regularly.