Cancer Center Braunschweig (CCB), Germany is multidisciplinary center with widely spread structure of clinics cooperating together including Certified Breast Center, Gynecological Cancer Center, Certified Prostate Center and Colorectal Cancer Center. Together with Radiology Department and Surgery Clinic they offer comprehensive service at cancer treating. Main goal of the Center's team is to provide a high-quality care of patients with different types of cancer and to improve survival rate and patient’s life quality. The specialists of the center always decide individually what kind of procedures to choose for every patient. Surgery along with radiotherapy and chemotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for cancer allowing, in earlier stages, to cure disease completely.
Cancer Surgery in Clinic of Braunschweig
Cancer surgery is mostly intended to remove malignant tumors completely or partially but sometimes it also can be used for diagnostics. There are many types of cancer surgery that can be divided into groups depending on method, diseased organ or extent of surgery.
Based on method it is possible to distinguish two main techniques of cancer surgery:
- Open surgery
- Minimally invasive surgery
There are also a few modern surgical methods that does not imply invasion with surgical tools but can destroy a tumor by other means as:
- Laser surgery. Removal of malignant tissues is done by focused laser beam.
- Cryosurgery. Cancer lesions are destroyed by extremely low temperature produced by liquid nitrogen or argon.
- Radiofrequency ablation. Radio waves generate heat that kills cancer cells.
- Photodynamic therapy. A tumor is destroyed using drugs that react on certain kind of light. The drugs become active when exposed to that light and the tumor, thus, is demolished.
Depending on whether your cancer is localized or diffused different types of surgery might be required:
- Removing of entire tumor when the tumor is localized. Normally it is used for primary cancer.
- Debulking, or partial removal. It is used when removing of entire tumor can cause too much damage to the organ.
- Palliative surgery. This type of surgery is used to relieve pain or other side effects caused by the tumor as pressure, blockage, and discomfort or bleeding.
Minimally Invasive Cancer Surgery
Nowadays, innovative minimally invasive techniques are widely used in different fields of medicine including cancer treatment. Comparing to traditional approach, minimally invasive procedure causes less body damages, lessens common complications associated with open surgery as wound infections, postoperative inflammations and bleeding and reduces recovery time after surgery.
Presently, various kinds of minimally invasive surgery exist and some of them are widely used for cancer curing. As a rule, surgery is done through small (sometimes literally “keyhole”) incision using one of existing types of miniature optical systems inserted inside the body to provide visualization by means of images translated to the monitor. There are many names for that kind of procedures depending on optical tubes types, operational area and the port of invasion as endoscopy, laparoscopy, arthroscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy and others but all of them use the same principles. Among the most recognizable by name minimally invasive procedures used in cancer treatment you find:
- Endoscopy. It is both diagnostic and surgical procedure using a thin tube called endoscope for examination and correction cancer lesions in different part of the body. Endoscopy can be done either via natural body openings as mouth, colon and vagina or small cuts in skin. The scopes differ based on part of the body they used, so a surgeon uses colonoscope for introducing into the colon, hysteroscope for examination of the uterus, esophagoscope for esophagus procedures and so on.
- Laparoscopy is normally a name for abdominal endoscopic surgery. Operation is done through a small incision in abdominal wall (often through the navel). The stomach is inflated with carbon dioxide to create more space for manipulations. Miniature instruments are inserted through another incision. A surgeon can see what happens inside on the display. This kind of surgery requires a higher skill of the surgeon as it is more difficult to coordinate hand manipulations while see enlarged image but not direct view.
Robotic Cancer Surgery
The difference between robotic cancer surgery and conventional minimally invasive surgery is that the first one is done not by hands but using robotized tools operated from the computer. It provides more preciseness and, in cancer surgery, is used for treatment of diffused lesions, for example, in lung or spine as well as for prostate and bladder cancer surgery and others. Robotic surgery allows cleaning diffused small tumors thoroughly and increases chances for complete curing, when is done on earlier stages and success rate.