Broncial Cancer Surgery
Bronchi (singular form is bronchus) are the main airways that carry air into the lung. They origin from trachea, descent to the lungs where split to the smaller branches called bronchioles. Bronchial cancer is any type of cancer that starts in the bronchial tubes and it is so closely interchanged with lung cancer that sometime they could be confused. Thus, initially such a disease of respiratory system as bronchogenic carcinoma was associated with certain types of cancer arising in bronchi but, presently, this term is often used for any type of lung cancer.
Types of Bronchial Cancer
The main type of cancer found in the respiratory airways is bronchial adenoma. This is a kind of bronchogenic cancer that stars in the mucous glands of the bronchial tubes. Bronchial adenomas can be subdivided to the following types:
- Carcenoids, or neuroendocrine tumors that more typical for stomach but also can happen in bronchi
- Cylindromas, or adenoid cystic carcinoma, that develops in the salivary glands, mucous glands and tear gland
- Mucoepidermoid carcinomas, that occurs in the salivary glands
Those types of tumors can be both malignant and benign and to determine if they happen to be cancerous special examination is required. Unfortunately, cancer of the bronchus is often diagnosed in the latest stages as it does not develop specific symptoms and can be mixed up with other chronic bronchial diseases as asthma or bronchitis.
Symptoms of Bronchial Cancer
The main symptom of cancer of the bronchial tubes is coughing up blood and mucous. If you happen to have this symptom, you should see your doctor shortly. Among the other possible signs of bronchial adenoma you can find:
- Breath shortage
- Abnormal sounds in bronchi
- Chest pain
- Face flashing
- Repeated respiratory infections
Diagnostics of Bronchial Cancer
The following means can be used to reveal bronchial tumors:
- X-Rays Examination
- Computed tomography (CT scan)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
All of above diagnostics techniques help to find neoplasm in the bronchi but none of them is able to prove whether a tumor malignant or not. For precise examination a doctor uses additional methods as:
- Bronchoscopy. During the procedure the trachea and bronchi are examined with a broncoscope, an optical device inserted into the respiratory ways through the mouse or nose. It helps to visualize the situation in the central airways and allows performing a biopsy (taking a small piece of tissue for cytological test).
- Fine-needle aspiration. When a lesion is difficult to reach of its size is small, a sample can be taken by a needle trough the chest wall between ribs.
Treatment of Bronchial Tube Cancer
When treatment is decided a doctor takes into consideration the type of cancerous disease, its localization and stage. Clinic of Braunschweig offers comprehensive service of multidisciplinary teams that guarantee the best solution without influence of preconception of a certain specialist. Cancer Center of the clinic closely cooperates with the other clinics and department as Radiology Department, General Surgery Department and Cardiothoracic Surgery Department.
When bronchial cancer is found in early stage, the first treatment is always surgery which can be applied alone or together with other procedures as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Surgery is performed when less than half of air passageway is affected with disease.
This type of surgery done through the mouth has limited utility. It is used for small (less than 2 cm) tumors localized only in the bronchial tube.
Open lung surgery
During open lung surgery a surgeon makes a large incision in the chest and open vision removing the ribs. It is performed when cancer are spread not only in bronchi but also in lungs.
Video-assisted surgery for bronchial cancer involves introducing a thin tube with a camera and miniature surgical instruments through small cut between ribs. It is more sparing procedure comparing to open surgery.
Bronchial Cancer Prognosis
Bronchial adenoma has quite optimistic prognosis, its 5-years survival rate after surgery is about 96 %. It is unbelievably excellent result for lung cancers that are the leading cause of the cancer related deaths. But bronchial adenoma is a rare kind of lung cancer whilst there are others types that may also start in bronchial tubes and, then, spread to the other parts of the lungs and even metastasize to remote areas. For precise diagnosis you should address to a specialist in field of lung cancer.
Cancer Center in Clinic of Braunschweig
If you have any signs of bronchial cancer, you should consult a doctor shortly. Oncologists of Cancer Center Braunschweig have modern and well-equipped site for accurate diagnostic. If necessary, the other specialist may be involved. Comprehensive service gives you possibility to choose proper treatment without risk of dependence on doctor. We always focus on patient’s requests and individual situation.